Protocol Labs Research
About
People
Research
Outreach
Blog

Latest work

2020.10.21 / Publications

Winkle: foiling long-range attacks in proof-of-stake systems

Winkle protects any validator-based byzantine fault tolerant consensus mechanisms, such as those used in modern Proof-of-Stake blockchains, against long-range attacks where old validators’ signature keys get compromised. Winkle is a decentralized secondary layer of client-based validation, where a client includes a single additional field into a transaction that they sign: a hash of the previously sequenced block.